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As the old saying goes, you have to crawl before you walk and walk before you run. Advances in solar devices are very similar.
First came bulk silicon-based solar cells built with techniques borrowed heavily from those used to make computer chips. Next came work on thin films of materials specifically tailored to harvest the sun’s energy, but still more or less borrowed from the realm of microelectronics manufacturing.
Then came the third generation; described as “the wild west,” which aims to build inexpensive next-generation solar cells by relying on low-tech wet chemistry.
By applying a blended mixture of various off-the-shelf dyes commonly used in food and medical industries, it is possible to boost the ability of zinc oxide solar cells to absorb visible light simply, said Ram Mehra of Sharda University in Greater Noida, India. Working with colleagues from the University of Delhi, Mehra doused cells with a variety of dyes in a soak-then-dry procedure not unlike that used to color a tee-shirt in a home washing machine.
The best result came from a blend of dyes, including Fast Green, a food dye used in canned vegetables, jellies and sauces and Rose Bengal, used in diagnostic eye drops to stain damaged cells and identify eye injuries, which boosted the efficiency of zinc oxide solar cells by nearly eight percent.
Mehra and colleagues said in the future, specific dye blends might allow them to make solar cells targeted for specific uses, much as custom mixing of dyes today yields products as diverse as adhesives, cosmetics, and perfumes. They write that “by changing composition of the mixture, its properties will change to be more or less suited to a particular useful application.”

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