Advances in magnet technology mean it could be possible to create a new design for a practical compact tokamak fusion reactor within the next 10 years.
The era of practical fusion power, which could offer a nearly inexhaustible energy resource, may be coming near.
Using these new commercially available superconductors, rare-earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) superconducting tapes, to produce high-magnetic field coils “just ripples through the whole design,” says Dennis Whyte, a MIT professor of Nuclear Science and Engineering and director of MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center. “It changes the whole thing.”
The stronger magnetic field makes it possible to produce the required magnetic confinement of the superhot plasma — that is, the working material of a fusion reaction — but in a much smaller device than those previously envisioned.
The reduction in size, in turn, makes the whole system less expensive and faster to build, and also allows for some ingenious new features in the power plant design. The proposed reactor uses a tokamak (donut-shaped) geometry.
Power Plant Prototype
The new reactor designed for basic research on fusion and also as a potential prototype power plant that could produce significant power. The basic reactor concept and its associated elements come from well-tested and proven principles developed over decades of research at MIT and around the world, the team said.
“The much higher magnetic field,” said PhD candidate Brandon Sorbom, “allows you to achieve much higher performance.”
Fusion, the nuclear reaction that powers the sun, involves fusing pairs of hydrogen atoms together to form helium, accompanied by enormous releases of energy. The hard part has been confining the superhot plasma — a form of electrically charged gas — while heating it to temperatures hotter than the cores of stars. This is where the magnetic fields are so important; they effectively trap the heat and particles in the hot center of the device.
While most characteristics of a system tend to vary in proportion to changes in dimensions, the effect of changes in the magnetic field on fusion reactions is much more extreme: The achievable fusion power increases according to the fourth power of the increase in the magnetic field. Thus, doubling the field would produce a 16-fold increase in the fusion reaction. “Any increase in the magnetic field gives you a huge win,” Sorbom said.
Big Power Boost
While the new superconductors do not produce quite a doubling of the field strength, they are strong enough to increase fusion power by about a factor of 10 compared to standard superconducting technology, Sorbom said. This improvement leads to a cascade of potential improvements in reactor design.
The world’s most powerful planned fusion reactor, a huge device called ITER under construction in France, should cost around $40 billion. Sorbom and the MIT team estimate the new design, about half the diameter of ITER (designed before the new superconductors became available), would produce about the same power at a fraction of the cost and in a shorter construction time.
But despite the difference in size and magnetic field strength, the proposed reactor, called ARC, ended up based on “exactly the same physics” as ITER, Whyte said. “We’re not extrapolating to some brand-new regime.”
Another key advance in the new design is a method for removing the fusion power core from the donut-shaped reactor without having to dismantle the entire device. That makes it especially well-suited for research aimed at further improving the system by using different materials or designs to fine-tune the performance.
In addition, as with ITER, the new superconducting magnets would enable the reactor to operate in a sustained way, producing a steady power output, unlike today’s experimental reactors that can only operate for a few seconds at a time without overheating of copper coils.
Another key advantage is most of the solid materials used to line the fusion chamber in such reactors end up replaced by a liquid material that can easily end up circulated and replaced, eliminating the need for costly replacement procedures as the materials degrade over time.
“It’s an extremely harsh environment for [solid] materials,” Whyte said, so replacing those materials with a liquid could be a major advantage.
Right now, as designed, the reactor should be capable of producing about three times as much electricity as needed to keep it running, but the design could probably improve to increase that proportion to about five or six times, Sorbom said So far, no fusion reactor has produced as much energy as it consumes, so this kind of net energy production would be a major breakthrough in fusion technology, the team said.
The design could produce a reactor that would provide electricity to about 100,000 people, they said. Devices of a similar complexity and size could go up within five years, they said.