People commit cyber crimes, we all know that, but do we really know why, or what the profile is of these attackers?
We do know those that commit cyber attacks against the government also tend to download music illegally and participate in physical protests, they do not appear to be acting out of some sense of national pride or patriotism.
The U.S. is just know beginning to profile “civilian cyber-warriors,” or people who engage in attacks against domestic or foreign governments without support from military or government agencies, according to a Michigan State University study.
“We were surprised to find that nationalism and patriotism were not predictors for cyber attacks,” said Thomas Holt, MSU associate professor of criminal justice and lead author on the study. “When officials attempt to identify today’s civilian cyber-warriors, they shouldn’t necessarily be looking for the person who is politically radical.”
Cyber attacks — such as those carried out by “hacktivist” groups — have prompted calls for stricter Internet regulations and enforcement. Congress was widely criticized in August when it failed to pass the Cybersecurity Act of 2012, even after many members warned of the catastrophic implications of cyber attacks.
Holt said the faceless, borderless nature of the Internet allows individuals to mask their identity and better avoid detection. This has given rise to the civilian cyber-warrior, who can potentially attack vulnerable resources such as municipal water systems and power grids, Holt said.
What might motivate them, though? Holt and fellow researcher Max Kilger surveyed 357 students from a U.S. university about their willingness to engage in protests, online and offline, and in cyber attacks. Eleven percent of the participants were international students, representing about thirty countries.
About 62 percent of participants said they were willing to participate in a physical protest if they believed their home government was being oppressive. More than 77 percent said they would post a Facebook message about the oppression.
A much smaller number of participants said they would engage in a cyber attack such as defacing a government website (13 percent) or compromising a government server (10 percent). Of those who would engage in a cyber attack, Holt said three common factors emerged: The participants were also likely to download illegal music, movies and other media; they were likely to engage in physical protest behaviors; and they did not have motivation by a general outlook or attitude toward their government.
“It may be that these individual behaviors correlate not to patriotism, but instead to an altruistic belief that all groups should be treated equally,” Holt said. He added future research may begin to paint a clearer picture of what motivates cybercriminals.